12230, Jericho Road, Kingsville, Baltimore County
Jericho Farm is a large 2 ½-story gable-roofed stone dwelling overlooking the Little Gunpowder Falls near the village of Kingsville in Baltimore County, Maryland. The house was constructed in two periods: the original dwelling, built c. 1780, was a 2 ½-story, side-passage, double pile house; about 1820, a five-bay, 2 ½-story, center-passage, single pile house was constructed against the south gable of the earlier building, resulting in the present T-shaped plan. Abutting the north gable, a 1 ½-story frame kitchen wing extends to a stone springhouse. A 2-story outbuilding of stone construction on the first story and frame above, lies to the west of the springhouse. The house retains a high level of integrity, retaining the vast majority of its original architectural fabric and interior detailing intact. Decorative detailing throughout the house reflects the period of the c. 1820 expansion, and includes six-panel doors (most with original box locks and keys), mantels (six of wood and two of gray marble), chair rail, baseboard, architrave trim, stair and balustrade, and six-panel doors, most of which retain their original hardware, including box locks and keys.
Jericho Farm is significant for its architecture, and for its association with the early development of the industry in eastern Baltimore County. As a result of two building campaigns, the house reflects a combination of two traditional floor plans: the original c. 1780 side hall, double pile dwelling was expanded c. 1820 by the erection of a center hall, single pile house against its stairhall gable. While this changed the orientation of the house from east to south, the new circulation pattern cleverly retained the existing stair, as the end of the new entrance hall was made to open into the existing passage at the foot of the stair. The opening at the north end of the center hall is emphasized by a semicircular arch, which functions to support the hearth of the room above; this is an unusual solution to the problem of providing heat for a center room of a dwelling with gable-end chimneys. The house retains nearly all its late 18th-early 19th century fabric and decorative detail intact. The house derives additional significance from its historic associations with the village of Jericho, an industrial community established around a water-powered mill in the 1770s. The house’s present form reflects the expansion of operations from grist milling to cotton textile production in the 1820s, when it was the residence of the factory manager.