Jennifer K. Cosham
New Windsor Historic District
New Windsor, Carroll County
The New Windsor Historic District comprises the majority of the town of New Windsor, located in west central Carroll County, Maryland. The district contains a wide variety of domestic, commercial, public, educational, and religious resources reflecting the development of the town from its founding in 1796 up to the World War II era. The town is laid out on a grid plan. Domestic resources are characterized by various traditional vernacular forms and popular styles. Most common are 2 or 2 1/2-story center-entrance or center-passage plan dwellings, of both three and five bays, and three-bay side-passage plan houses. Several examples of the Pennsylvania Farmhouse plan, with two central doors, exist in New Windsor. The influence of popular styles began to be felt in the post-Civil War period. Queen Anne houses began to gain popularity in the 1870s, and their influence continued into the 20th century, sometimes blending with the Colonial Revival. Early 20th century trends are represented by T-plan houses, with a gable end to the street and a short wing on either side; about half a dozen Bungalows; numerous Foursquare houses; and a few 1 1/2-story, two-bay or three-bay frame "Cottage Style" houses. A number of commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings are important to the architectural character of New Windsor. These include the Dielman Inn, which was established at the major crossroads in the late 18th century, and continued to develop through the 19th. The former Blue Ridge College consists of four historic structures, three of them arranged in an arc along the ridge, overlooking New Windsor Road. Three historic churches and three banks characterize the town. Several industrial buildings formerly stood along the railroad tracks near the southern boundary of the district; most of these have vanished. A survivor is the Fairfield Farms Dairy Creamery. The town hall and firehouse on High Street is an early 20th century brick structure with a flat roof. A variety of outbuildings, most of them on the alleys, contribute to the historic character of New Windsor; foremost among these are numerous carriage houses. The district retains an exceptionally high level of integrity, with relatively few intrusions or non-contributing elements.
New Windsor is a small Piedmont town in western Carroll County, Maryland. Originally laid out in 1797 by Isaac Atlee at the confluence of the Monocacy Road and the Buffalo Road, it experienced steady growth along one main street in the first half of the 19th century. Early in the second half of the 19th century a grid plan was developed, and this was expanded in the early 20th century. Building activity seems to have peaked in the period c. 1860-1873 and c. 1898-1915, but in general there was steady growth in the intervening years. Much of this building was in the local vernacular of Carroll County, but this began to change considerably in the 1870s and 1880s, as nationally popular architectural styles began to exert an influence on New Windsor's streetscapes. Thus, New Windsor is significant for its reflection of Piedmont town development, local building practices and the influence of national architectural trends on these traditions. This infrastructure illustrates the way of life of a community from the formative period of Carroll County, ca. 1796, to the beginning of the second World War in 1941. In addition, unlike most towns in Carroll County, New Windsor developed not only as a focal point for the surrounding farm community, but also served as a summer resort town for people from Baltimore and Washington from its beginning.