Jennifer K. Cosham
Lineboro Historic District
Lineboro, Carroll County
The Lineboro Historic District comprises most of the village of Lineboro, located just south of the Maryland-Pennsylvania border (Mason-Dixon Line) in northeast Carroll County, Maryland. The village is laid out primarily along one road, Main Street, which runs southwest-northeast. Houses predominate within the district, and most fit into five categories. Perhaps the most common house type is a regional vernacular expression, three bays wide with a center entrance, and usually two bays deep with an ell on the rear. Most of these are two-story buildings but several have a central gabled wall dormer. Several of these houses are constructed into a partially excavated bank. Similar to the former type, but larger and often more elaborately treated, is a group of five-bay buildings with a center entrance. The Pennsylvania Farmhouse plan, four bays wide with two center doors, two bays deep, with a one-story porch across the façade, is also represented in Lineboro. The foursquare and bungalow house types of the early 20th century also are common within the district. Domestic outbuildings, including summer kitchens and smokehouses, also contribute to the historic character of the district. Several properties were farms before the development of Lineboro and continued to operate as such after the town grew up next to them. These properties retain a variety of agricultural outbuildings, including bank barns. Public, commercial, and industrial buildings include several stores, a one-room school and a fire hall. Other buildings of interest include the former hotel, a feed mill, and the 1908 cruciform-plan Gothic Revival Lazarus Union Church. The district retains a high degree of integrity. It comprises a total of 83 resources, of which 70, or 84%, contribute to its significance.
The Lineboro Historic District is significant as an example of the linear, "Pennsylvania" town plan which is characteristic of 19th century villages in the Piedmont region of Maryland. As defined by the cultural geographer Wilbur Zelinsky in "The Pennsylvania Town: An Overdue Geographical Account" in Geographical Review, vol. 67, no. 2, April 1977, pp. 131-136, the "Pennsylvania Town" is characterized by compactness, linearity, limited setback of regionally distinctive buildings from the street, and "spatial scrambling" of urban functions, with "dwellings [and] shops . . .cheek by jowl with adjacent buildings, [but] churches, cemeteries, . . . and manufacturing and wholesale enterprises consigned to peripheral locations." These characteristics are fully present in Lineboro, and the village is distinctive among the linear towns of northeastern Carroll County in its high degree of integrity which permits it to exemplify the type. In addition, the buildings within the district themselves represent a wide variety of vernacular architectural forms typical of the domestic, commercial, religious, and agricultural buildings of the region during the period 1820-c. 1930. Through the second and third quarters of the 19th century, Lineboro remained a small crossroads community with a single church, a store, and an inn located at what is now the west end of the village. Growth accelerated following the arrival of the Baltimore and Hanover Railroad in 1877; a feed mill and store building were constructed next to the railroad tracks at the present east end of town, and the village became a center of transportation and commerce in rural northeastern Carroll County. Residential and commercial development proceeded to fill in along Main Street between the two ends of the present town. Building activity ceased in Lineboro during the Great Depression, and did not resume until after World War II.